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Origin & Historical Standards for Clean Room

Origin & Historical Standards for Clean Room

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In 1961, Sandia in the United States invented laminar flow clean room for the first time, which resulted in clean environment unknown before, and enormously helped Space Project Apollo in America. Later, clean room technology was gradually adopted by high-tech industry, with which industrial participants and regulators found it’s necessary for establishing specifications and standards regarding clean room. Finally, USA Federal Standard No. 209 (Clean Room Standards) was established in 1963, which classified cleanliness into three levels, namely, Class 100, Class 10,000 and Class 100,000, and specified test method of cleanliness, way of air flow, pressure,  temperature and humidity with regard to clean room. Then, the standards were successively revised in 1966, 1973, 1987, 1988 and 1992, corresponding to editions 209A, 209B, 209C, 209D and 209E, respectively.

Table 1-1 Key Points of FS-209D Standards

 

Class

Particle

Differential pressure

Temperature

RH

air velocity

Lumin

Grain size
µm

Count
Particle/ft ³

InAq

(mmAq)

F

(℃)

RH

%

FPM
m/s
(Air change frequency)

Foot-candle, fc

(Lux)

1

≥0.5

≤1

 

 

≥0.05
I.e.
≥1.27
mmAq

No specially assigned

72℉
±5℉
I.e.
22.2℃
±2.8℃

No specially assigned

40±5

 

Laminar flow
90FPM
±20%
I.e.
0.45m/s
±20%
Turbulent flow
≥(20 times/hour)

100
|
150
fc
I.e.
1,076
|
1,614
LUX

10

≥0.5

≤10

100

≥0.5

≤100

1,000

≥0.5

≤1,000

10,000

≥0.5

≤10,000

≥5

≤65

 

100,000

≥0.5

≤100,000

≥5

≤700

Note: 1 fc=10.76Lux

 

Table 1-2 Key Points of NASA’s Clean Room Standards (NHB-5340·2)


Cleanliness Class of biological clean room (BCR)

Particle

Microbe

Grain size
µm

Cumulative count of particles
Particle/ft ³(pcs/L)

Count of airborne microbe
pcs/ft ³(pcs/L)

Count of settling microbe
Pcs/ft ² week(pcs/㎡week)

100

≥0.5

≤100(≤3.5)

≤0.1(0.0035)

1,200(12,900)

10,000

≥0.5

≤10,000(≤350)

≤0.1(0.0176)

 

6,000(64,600)

≥5.0

≤65(≤2.3)

 

100,000

≥0.5

≤100,000
(≤3,500)

≤2.5(0.0884)

30,000(323,000)

≥5.0

≤700(≤25)

 

Table 1-3 Cleanliness class under FS-209E (1992)

Grain size

≥0.1µm

≥0.2µm

≥0.3µm

≥0.5µm

≥5µm

Count of particles

Pcs/m³

Pcs/ft ³

Pcs/m³

Pcs/ft ³

Pcs/m ³

Pcs/ft ³

Pcs/m ³

Pcs/ft ³

Pcs/m ³

Pcs/ft ³

SI level

BS Class

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M1
M1.5
M2
M2.5
M3
M3.5
M4
M4.5
M5
M5.5
M6
M6.5
M7

 

1

10

100

1000

10000

100000

350
1240
3500
12400
35000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

9.91
35.0
99.1
350
991
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

75.7
265
757
2650
7570
26500
75700
-
-
-
-
-
-

2.14
7.50
21.4
75.0
214
750
2140
-
-
-
-
-
-

30.9
106
309
1060
3090
10600
30900
-
-
-
-
-
-

0.875
3.00
8.75
30.0
87.5
300
875
-
-
-
-
-
-

10.0
35.3
100
353
1000
3530
10000
35300
100000
353000
1000000
3530000
10000000

0.283
1.00
2.83
10.0
28.3
100
283
1000
2830
10000
28300
100000
283000

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
247
618
2470
6180
24700
61800

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7.00
17.5
70.0
175
700
1750